Kennedy, Thomas

KENNEDY, Thomas (1849-1916), a remarkably prolific architect in Barrie, Ont. whose name is associated with over one hundred buildings throughout southern and central Ontario which he and his partners designed between 1878 and 1910. This includes a wide range of civic, ecclesiastical, institutional, commercial, industrial, and residential projects, many of which still stand today in locations from Owen Sound in the west, Toronto to the south, and Lindsay to the east. He was active in the following firms:

Thomas Kennedy, of Barrie, Ont. 1878 to December 1880
Kennedy & McVittie, of Barrie, Ont. December 1880 to August 1881
Kennedy, McVittie & Holland, of Barrie, Collingwood & Toronto, Ont., August 1881 to 1883
Kennedy, Gaviller & Holland, of Barrie, Collingwood, Toronto and Owen Sound, Ont., Dec. 1883 to July 1885
Kennedy & Holland, of Barrie & Toronto, July 1885 to January 1890
Thomas Kennedy & Co., of Barrie, Ont., January 1890 to November 1906
Kennedy, Beggs & Co., of Barrie, Ont., November 1906 to May 1907

Born in Newmarket, Ont. in 1849, he may have been educated there, but by 1871 he was listed as carpenter in Simcoe County, and he likely gained his knowledge of construction by working in the building trades. He opened his own office as an architect in Barrie in 1878. He was among the first professional architects in Ontario to diversify his practise by opening a series of branch offices, at first in Collingwood, then in Toronto, and later, a fourth office in Owen Sound. Kennedy remained in Barrie, but orchestrated the Kennedy “franchise” by hiring a number of partners to operate these offices. In December 1880, he formed a partnership with Archibald W. McVittie, and they were joined in August 1881 by William J. Holland, a Toronto carpenter-builder who moved to Collingwood to open the firm’s branch office there. In early 1882, they opened a Toronto branch on York Street, with the office staffed by one of the three partners making regular visits there.

When McVittie departed for Calgary, Alta. in 1883, he was replaced by Maurice Gaviller, a professional surveyor, who joined the partnership in December 1883. They opened their fourth office, in Owen Sound, and W.J. Holland moved to Toronto in late 1885 to become the supervising partner of their Toronto office while Kennedy remained in Barrie. From 1890 onward, Kennedy maintained his busy office under his own name in Barrie until 1906 when failing health forced him to seek the assistance of a new partner, a young civil engineer and architect Neil G. Beggs, who became a partner in November 1906 while Kennedy sought medical treatment at Preston, Ontario. That partnership ended just six months later, in May 1907, and the ailing Kennedy ceased to advertise his services in October 1908, even though he remained as a member of the Ontario Assoc. of Architects until 1912.

Kennedy employed a variety of fashionable architectural styles for his work, and it appears that many of the designs produced by his various offices came from his own hand. For his commercial buildings, he made wide use of the Italianate style such as the Hinds Block, Barrie (1879-80), and later experimented with the Second Empire style, evident in his design of the Lakeview Hotel, Toronto (1887-88). For his ecclesiastical work, he favoured the Romanesque Revival style (for St. James Church, Colgan, 1888-89), or a High Victoria Gothic style (such as St. Patrick’s Church, Phelpston 1891-92). Much is his residential work was executed in the Queen Anne Revival style (best seen in his drawings for the Beck Residence, Penetanguishine, 1889-90). The sheer volume of his output is remarkable, but it is difficult to characterize any specific building as an exceptional masterpiece since he seemed to work in the shadows of other more talented architects during this period such as Frank Darling, or Henry Langley, or Edmund Burke. Much of his reputation rests upon his reliability rather than his innovative originality. Kennedy died at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto on 13 June 1916 (Ontario, York County Death Registry Rolls, 1916-05-004 360). A biography and photographic portrait of Kennedy was published in the Barrie Examiner, 10 May 1906, p. 4.

THOMAS KENNEDY

BARRIE, ONT., store and dwelling for Thomas Marrin, Collier Street, 1878 (inf. from Stephen Otto, Toronto)
BARRIE, ONT., commercial block for E. Hinds, Dunlop Street at Owen Street, 1879-80 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 20 Nov. 1879, 3, descrip.; East Georgian Bay Historical Foundation, Barrie - A Nineteenth Century County Town, 1984, 29, illus.)
BARRIE, ONT., commercial block for L.S. and C.L. Sanders, 1880 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 3 June 1880, 2, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., commercial block for J.M. Bothwell, Dunlop Street, 1880 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 3 June 1880, 4, descrip.)

KENNEDY & McVITTIE

ROSSEAU, ONT., Monteith House Hotel, 1881 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 27 Jan. 1881, 2, t.c.)
COLGAN, ONT., School House, 1881 (Globe [Toronto], 16 March 1881, 5, t.c.)
BEETON, ONT., Hotel, for Charles Baxter, 1881 (Globe [Toronto], 25 March 1881, 7, t.c.)
BEETON, ONT., public school, 1881 (Examiner [Barrie], 31 March 1881, 3)
CREEMORE, ONT., public school, 1881 (Examiner [Barrie], 31 March 1881, 3)
ADJALA, ONT., public school, 1881 (Examiner [Barrie], 31 March 1881, 3)
ORILLIA, ONT., Central Public School, Coldwater Street East, 1881 (Examiner [Barrie], 31 March 1881, 3; Globe [Toronto], 7 May 1881, 7, t.c.)

KENNEDY, McVITTIE & HOLLAND

ORILLIA, ONT., commercial block with Music Hall, possibly Kennedy's Block, Mississauga Street at Peter Street, 1881 (Globe [Toronto], 24 Sept. 1881, 4, t.c.)
WARMINSTER, ONT., Roman Catholic Church, 1882 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 6 April 1882, 3)
NOTTAWASAGA TOWNSHIP, near Collingwood, School House for S.S. 1, Lot 23, Concession 4, 1882 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 20 April 1882, 4, t.c.)
MIDLAND, ONT., commercial block for Burton Bros., King Street at Bay Street, 1882 (Globe [Toronto], 22 April 1882, 14, t.c.)
LINDSAY, ONT., High School, 1882 (Times [Orillia], 27 April 1882, 3)
MIDLAND, ONT., stores for Spohn & Lumis, 1882 (Globe [Toronto], 27 May 1882, 7, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., commercial block for T. Long & Brother, Hurontario Street, 1882-83 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 22 June 1882, 3, descrip.; 1 March 1883, 3, descrip.)
BARRIE, ONT., 'Lilac Villa', residence for Thomas Kennedy, Architect, Owen Street, alterations and improvements, 1882 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 5 Oct. 1882, 3)
OWEN SOUND, ONT., commercial block for Melville & Co., 1883 (Globe [Toronto], 26 Jan. 1883, 8, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Convent, Wellesley Street West, extensions, 1883; demol. (Globe [Toronto], 23 March 1883, 8, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., commercial buildings for G.A. McLean, for W.J. Frame, and office with factory for Telfer Bros., 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 3 May 1883, 3)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., villa for F.B. Gregory, Third Street, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 17 May 1883, 3; Laurel Lane-Moore, Collingwood: Historic Homes and Buildings, 1989, 52, illus. & descrip.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., commercial block for Best & Nettleton, Hurontario Street, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 14 June 1883, 3; descrip.; 15 Nov. 1883, 3, descrip.)
STAYNER, ONT., commercial block for Long Bros. & Gartlan, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 30 Aug. 1883, 3, descrip.; 24 Feb. 1884, 2, descrip.)
DUNEDIN, ONT., farm residence for John True, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 26 July 1883, 3)
TORONTO, ONT. St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, Leslie Street near Queen Street East, 1883-84 (Globe [Toronto], 19 Oct. 1883, 8; 8 March 1884, 10, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., residence for J.W. Archer, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 22 Nov. 1883, 3)
MEAFORD, ONT., Royal Hotel, for Mrs. Stubbs, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 13 Sept. 1883, 3, descrip.; 29 Nov. 1883, 2)

KENNEDY, GAVILLER & HOLLAND

COLLINGWOOD, ONT., villas for P. McAuley and for Elihu Stewart, Third Street, 1883 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 29 Nov. 1883, 2; Laurel Lane-Moore, Collingwood: Historic Homes and Buildings, 1989, 64-5, illus. & descrip.)
MEAFORD, ONT., commercial block for H. Manley, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 8 Feb. 1884, 7, t.c.)
PERKINSFIELD, ONT., St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 18 Feb. 1884, 6, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., Morse Soap Co., factory, Front Street East near Jarvis Street, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 23 Feb. 1884, 10, t.c.; Enterprise [Collingwood], 28 Feb. 1884, 3)
BARRIE, ONT., Post Office & Custom House, Dunlop Street, 1884-86; demol. 1958 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 10 May 1883, 2, descrip.; Toronto Daily Mail, 9 Oct. 1884, 2, descrip.; Canada, Sessional Papers, xviii, 1885, Appendix 2, Report of the Chief Architect, 32; dwgs. at NAC, RG11, Vol 3910, 120-40, illus.)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., Martyrs Memorial Roman Catholic Church (now St. Ann's Memorial Church), 1884-90 (Toronto Daily Mail, 7 March 1884, 8, descrip.; Globe [Toronto], 23 April 1886, 3, illus. & descrip.; Catholic Record [London], 18 Sept. 1886, 5, descrip.)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., commercial block, for C.G. Gendron, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 5 April 1884, 10, t.c.)
PENETANG, ONT., residence for P. Lambert, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 23 April 1884, 8, t.c.)
ORILLIA, ONT., residence for R. Hallen, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 26 April 1884, 10, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., store for George McLean, Hurontario Street, 1884 (Enterprise [Collingwood],15 May 1884, 3, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., Great Northern Exhibition Buildings, in the Town Park, 1884-85 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 8 May 1884, 3, descrip.; 26 June 1884, 2, descrip.; 2 July 1885, 3, descrip.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., residence for C.E. Pangman, Rodney Street, 1884 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 10 July 1884, 3)
OWNE SOUND, ONT., commercial block for A. Melville, 1884 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 10 July 1884, 3)
ORILLIA, ONT., residence for Charles Corbould, 1884 (Globe [Toronto], 30 Sept. 1884, 3, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., Town Hall, Hurontario Street, 1884-85 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 6 Nov. 1884, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., St. Francis Roman Catholic School, Manning Avenue near Dundas Street West, 1884 (Toronto World, 8 Nov. 1884, 1)
MIDLAND, ONT., commercial block for Stafford & Ruby, 1884 (Daily Evening Review [Peterborough], 22 Nov. 1884, 3)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., residence for John Birnie Jr., 1884-85 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 4 Dec. 1884, 3, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT, residence for Capt. Collins, Third Street at Beech Street, 1884-85 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 18 Dec. 1884, 2, t.c.; 15 Oct. 1885, 3, descrip.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., Public School, 1885 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 9 April 1885, 3)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., store for W.F.H. Thompson, 1885(Globe [Toronto], 16 April 1885 2, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., warehouse for Telfer Brothers, 1885 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 7 May 1885, 3, descrip.)
AURORA, ONT., Central High School, Church Street, 1885 (Aurora Banner, 8 May 1885, 4)
BARRIE, ONT., Reformed Episcopal Church, 1885 (Globe [Toronto], 16 May 1885, 3, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., Orient Hall Masonic Temple, Queen Street East at Boulton Avenue, 1885 (Toronto Daily Mail, 1 July 1885, 8, descrip.; Toronto World, 24 Oct. 1885, 1)

KENNEDY & HOLLAND

TORONTO, ONT., St. Francis Roman Catholic Separate School, Manning Avenue near Dundas Street West, 1885 (Globe [Toronto], 3 June 1885, 5, t.c.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., residence for John Birnie, 1885 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 23 July 1885, 3)
STAYNER, ONT., Agricultural Exhibition Hall, for the North Simcoe Industrial Association, 1886 (Globe [Toronto], 24 April 1886, 13, t.c.)
TOTTENHAM, ONT., hotel and stores for John Kidd, 1886 (Globe [Toronto], 28 April 1886, 2, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for W.H. Cross, Collier Street, 1886-87 (Globe [Toronto], 6 May 1886, 6, t.c.; Northern Advance [Barrie], 20 Oct 1887, 1, descrip.)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for Michael Shanacy, Toronto Street, 1887 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 31 March 1887, 1)
STAYNER, ONT., Presbyterian Church, 1887 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 31 March 1887, 1, descrip.)
TORONTO, ONT., Cyclorama, Front Street West at York Street, 1887; demol. (Toronto World, 20 Aug. 1887, 3, descrip.)
TORONTO, ONT., row of nine houses for John Daly, Sumach Street at Dundas Street East, 1887; demol. (Telegram [Toronto], 5 Aug. 1887, 1, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., Lakeview Hotel, Parliament Street at Winchester Street, 1887-88, and now called The Winchester Hotel (Globe [Toronto], 19 Oct. 1887, 3, t.c.; Architectural Conservancy of Ontario, 80 for 80: Celebrating 80 Years of the A.C.O., 2013, 28-9, illus. & descrip.)
COLGAN, ONT., St. James Roman Catholic Church, 1888-89 (Catholic Record [London], 16 March 1889, 6, descrip.)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Elgin Street at Ontario Street, 1888 (Enterprise [Collingwood], 20 Dec. 1888, 1, descrip.)
TORONTO, ONT., factory and warehouse for John M. Cowan & Co., Mincing Lane, 1889 (Architectural Era [Syracuse], iii, May 1889, 115)
TORONTO, ONT., St. Mary's Roman Catholic Separate School, Bathurst Street at Adelaide Street West, 1889 (Globe [Toronto], 14 Dec. 1889, 10, t.c)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT. residence for C. Beck, 1889 (C.A.B., ii, Aug. 1889, 90, descrip. & illus.)

THOMAS KENNEDY & CO.

ALLANDALE, ONT., Bothwell's Block, commercial buildings, 1890 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 20 Feb. 1890, 8)
NORTH BAY, ONT., hotel for Mr. Lynch, 1890 (C.R., i, 22 March 1890, 1)
BARRIE, ONT., extension to the Queen's Hotel, for Mr. Brown, 1891 (Northern Advance [Barrie], 11 June 1891, 1 )
PHELPSTON, ONT., St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 1892-93; burned 1997; rectory, 1899 (Catholic Register [Toronto], 16 March 1893, 5, descrip.; C.R., iii, 15 Oct. 1892, 1; x, 1 Feb 1899, 3)
TOTTENHAM, ONT., Town Hall and School House, 1893 (C.R., iii, 4 Feb. 1893, 1)
BARRIE, ONT., Roman Catholic Separate School, 1893 (Catholic Register [Toronto], 10 Aug. 1893, 12)
BARRIE, ONT., Peninsula Park Hotel, major extension and Ball Room, 1894 (C.R., v, 1 March 1894, 1)
NEW LOWELL, ONT., Methodist Church, 1894 (C.R., v, 1 March 1894, 1)
SUDBURY, ONT., public school, 1894 (Sudbury Journal, 22 March 1894, 1, t.c.)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., residence for C. G. Gendron, 1894 (C.R., v, 5 April 1894, 1)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., hotel for James Dusome, 1894 (C.R., v, 31 May 1894, 1)
ELMVALE, ONT., Presbyterian Church, 1894 (C.R., v, 5 July 1894, 1)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for Thomas McCulloch, Collier Street, 1895 (C.R., vi, 9 May 1895, 1, t.c.)
ELMVALE, ONT., residence for Charles Copeland, 1895 (C.R., vi, 23 May 1895, 2, t.c.)
ELMVALE, ONT., residence for Mrs. Stone, 1895 (C.R., vi, 19 Sept. 1895, 1)
ORILLIA, ONT., reconstruction of Thompson-Lipping Block, 1896 (C.R., vi, 23 Jan. 1896, 2)
BARRIE, ONT., Model School, additions, 1896 (C.R., vii, 12 March 1896, 2)
BARRIE, ONT., Agricultural Exhibition Hall, 1896 (C.R., vii, 11 June 1896, 1, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., steam generating plant for the Barrie Electric Lighting Co., Bayfield Street, 1896 (Canadian Electrical News [Toronto], vi, Aug. 1896, 161, descrip.) UPTERGROVE, ONT., rectory for the Roman Catholic Church, for Father Phillips, 1896 (C.R., vii, 21 May 1896, 1)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., residence for Mrs. George Copeland, 1896 (C.R., vii, 18 June 1896, 2)
ELMVALE, ONT., residence for F.W. Lent, 1897 (C.A.B., x, April 1897, illus.)
BARRIE, ONT., Fire Hall & Municipal Building, additions for Police Court, Council Chamber, gaol cells, and alterations, 1897; demol. 1978 (C.R., viii, 22 April 1897, 2, t.c.)
MINESING, ONT., Public School, 1897 (C.R., viii, 17 June 1897, 2, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for S. Wesley, 1898 (C.R., ix, 27 April 1898, 2, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., commercial block for George Plaxton, 1899 (C.R., x, 22 Feb. 1899, 1, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., commercial block for Thomas Johnson, 1899 (C.R., x, 22 Feb. 1899, 3)
UPTERGROVE, ONT., School House, 1899 (C.R., x, 1 March 1899, 1, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., Gaoler's Residence at the County Gaol, 1899 (C.R., x, 9 Aug. 1899, 1, t.c.)
SAULT STE. MARIE, ONT., several houses on Second Street and Third Street, near Wilde Avenue, in Tagona Village near the Algoma Steel Works, for F.H. Clergue, 1901 (Sault Star [Sault Ste. Marie], 28 Nov. 1901, 6)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., residence for W. Blanchard, 1903 (C.R., xiv, 15 April 1903, 2)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for William Turner, Thompson Street, 1905 (C.R., xvi, 8 March 1905, 4, t.c.)
MEAFORD, ONT., Agricultural Hall & Curling Rink, 1905 (C.R., xvi, 12 April 1905, 4)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for Dr. Wallevin, Mary Street, 1905 (C.R., xvi, 24 May 1905, 5)
BEETON, ONT., residence for Miss Hamilton, 1905 (C.R., xvi, 13 Sept. 1905, 2, t.c.)
EDGAR, ONT., School House, 1906 (C.R., xvi, 21 Feb. 1906, 2, t.c.)
BARRIE, ONT., pair of houses for E.T. Tyrer, John Street, 1906 (C.R., xvii, 11 April 1906, 4, t.c.)
PENETANGUISHINE, ONT., Collegiate Institute, 1906; Public School, 1906 (C.R., xvii, 9 May 1906, 2)
BARRIE, ONT., residence for J.F. Wilson, Clapperton Street, 1906 (C.R., xvii, 20 June 1906, 2, t.c.)