Hay, William

HAY, William (1818-1888), a talented and prolific architect who was active in Scotland, Newfoundland, Ontario and Nova Scotia. He was recorded in the following firms:

William Hay, Edinburgh, Scotland 1842-1847
William Hay, St. John's, Newfoundland, 1848-1853
William Hay, Toronto, Ont. 1853-1860
Hay & Gundry, Toronto, Dec. 1861-June 1862 (with Thomas Gundry)
Hay & Stirling, Halifax, N.S., 1862-1864 (with David Stirling)
William Hay, Edinburgh, 1864-1876
Hay & Cousin, Edinburgh, 1876-77 (with David Cousin)
Hay & Henderson, Edinburgh, 1878-1888 (with George Henderson)

(biography in preparation)

WILLIAM HAY

(Ecclesiastical Works)

CRUDEN, CO. ABERDEENSHIRE, SCOTLAND, St..James Episcopal Church, 1842; and addition of chancel, vestry and organ chamber, 1875-76 (Aberdeen Journal, 9 Feb. 1842; Ecclesiologist [London], xv, Feb. 1854, 12-14, descrip.; David Walker & Matthew Woodwoorth, The Buildings of Scotland: Aberdeenshire - North and Moray, 2015, 145-46, descrip.)
COUPAR ANGUS, CO. PERTH, SCOTLAND, St. Anne's Episcopal Church, Forfar Road, 1847-48 (John Gifford, The Buildings of Scotland: Perth & Kinross, 2007, 284, descrip.)
POUCH COVE, NFLD., St. Thomas Anglican Church, 1848 (The Church [Toronto], 11 Jan. 1849, 95, descrip.; Ecclesiologist [London], ix, Feb. 1849, 216-17, descrip.)
HAMILTON, BERMUDA, Holy Trinity Church, designed in 1846 by James Cranston, with plans later adapted by Hay 1848-49; church burned 1884; rebuilt by Hay & Henderson 1886-1905 (Ecclesiologist [London], ix, June 1849, 397-8, descrip.; The Architect [London], xxxi, 15 March 1884, 179-80, descrip. of original design by Hay; Illustrated London News, lxxxvi, 28 March 1885, 325-6, illus. & descrip.; Thomas S. Reid, Trinity Church Bermuda: A Sketch of its History, 1886, 8-12, 24-5, illus. & descrip.)
BURIN, NFLD., Anglican Church, 1850 (Times [St. John's], 14 Aug. 1850, 2, descrip.; The Church [Toronto], 5 Sept. 1850, 45)
ST. FRANCIS HARBOUR, LABRADOR, St. John the Baptist Anglican Church, 1850 (Ecclesiologist [London], xi, Oct. 1850, 200-01, descrip.; The Church [Toronto], 20 March 1851, 269, descrip.; Pierre du Prey, "Finding The 'Lost' Church of St. John The Baptist, Francis Harbour, Labrador", in Lucie Morisset, The Architecture of Identity, 2020, 169-75, illus. & descrip.)
LONGSIDE, CO. ABERDEENSHIRE, SCOTLAND, St. John's Episcopal Church, designed 1847; built 1852-54; and reredos screen and altar by Hay, 1875 (Ecclesiologist [London], xiii, Aug. 1852, 301, descrip.; xv, Feb. 1854, 16-18, descrip.; Builder [London], xii, 11 Nov. 1854, 582, descrip., but lacking attribution; David Waker & Matthew Woodworth, The Buildings of Scotland: Aberdeenshire - North and Moray, 2015, 273-74, descrip.; Plate 40, illus.)
TORONTO, ONT., St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Bathurst Street, additions and new Rectory, 1854 (Globe [Toronto], Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 3; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 69; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 269-70)
MANVERS TOWNSHIP, DURHAM CO., ONT., St. Mary's Anglican Church, 1851-52 (United Empire [Toronto], 20 Jan. 1853, 3)
BRAMPTON, ONT., Christ Church (Anglican), proposal for a new church, 1853, but not built to this design (Anglo-American Magazine [Toronto], iv, Jan. 1854, 20-2, illus. & descrip.); A later design by William Thomas of Toronto was built in 1857, and is still standing on Queen Street West in Brampton in 2022.
KINGSTON, ONT., reconstruction of St. Paul's Anglican Church, Queen Street, 1855 (The Church [Toronto], 22 Feb. 1855, 118, descrip.; Jennifer McKendry, Architects Working in the Kingston Region 1820-1920, 2019, 57, illus.)
ORANGEVILLE, ONT., St. Mark's Anglican Church, 1855 (Hamilton Gazette, 16 Aug. 1855, 2)
WELLINGTON, ONT., Anglican Church, 1855 (Hamilton Gazette, 3 Sept. 1855, 3)
LAMALINE, NFLD., Anglican Church, 1855-56 (Society for the Propogation of the Gospel, C, MSS Box 11/27, B-4-1, 26 Dec. 1855)
TORONTO, ONT., United Presbyterian Church, Gould Street, 1855-56 (Globe [Toronto], 22 Sept. 1855, 2, descrip.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2, descrip.; Canadian United Presbyterian Magazine, 1 Feb. 1857, 62, descrip.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 258-9, descrip.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Hallowed Walls, 1975, 170-1, illus.; dwgs. at Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, Langley Coll., 125-29)
TORONTO, ONT., St. Michael's Roman Catholic College, new Chapel and College, St. Joseph Street at Bay Street, 1855-56 (Catholic Citizen [Toronto], 16 Aug. 1855, illus. & descrip.; Globe [Toronto], 12 Sept. 1855, 2, descrip.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2, descrip.; Mirror [Toronto], 26 Sept. 1856, descrip.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 83, descrip.; Eric Arthur, Toronto - No Mean City, 1964, 116-17, illus. & descrip.; dwgs. at Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, Langley Coll., 169)
TORONTO, ONT., Holy Trinity Church, Trinity Square, new Sunday School, 1856-57; Rectory 1860 (Globe [Toronto], 11 Aug. 1856, 2, descrip.; 24 March 1860, 3, t.c.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 257-8, descrip.; dwgs. in Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, Howard Coll., Item 95)
NIAGARA FALLS, ONT., All Saints Anglican Church, Robinson Street, 1856-57 (P. Mayes, The Story of the Historic Church of All Saints, 1951, 6; Niagara Falls Review, 30 Oct. 1982, 4)
(with John Turner) BRANTFORD, ONT., Grace Anglican Church, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 24 April 1856, 3, t.c.)
ORILLIA, ONT., St. James Anglican Church, Peter Street, 1856-57; demol. 1890 (Simcoe County Archives, Hale Coll., 978-77, E16 B3, engraved perspective with signature; A. Leitch, The Visible Past: Pictorial History of Simcoe County, 1974, 207, illus.)
(with David Allan) GUELPH, ONT., St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Norfolk Street at Suffolk Street, 1857-58 (Prebyterian, xi, Feb. 1858, 20, descrip.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Hallowed Walls, 1975, 167-70, illus.)
NEWCASTLE, ONT., St. George's Anglican Church, 1857-58 (Echo & Protestant Recorder [Toronto], 3 March 1859, 2; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Hallowed Walls, 1975, 171-2, illus.; dwgs. in Langley Coll., 208-10, Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library)
TORONTO, ONT., St. John's Anglican Church, for the Toronto Garrison, Victoria Square, 1857-58 (G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 269, descrip.; Canadian Illustrated News, v, 6 April 1872, 213; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Hallowed Walls, 1975, 171-3, illus.)
JEFFERSON, ONT., new spire for St. John's Anglican Church, 1858 (E. Gerber, The Church of St. John the Baptist 1848-1973, 10)
PICKERING, ONT., St. George's Anglican Church, Highway 2 at Randall Road, 1858 (Pickering News, 25 Nov. 1881, 2)
SOUTHAMPTON, ONT., St. Paul's Anglican Church, 1860-61 (Globe [Toronto], 6 March 1861, 3, descrip.; Canadian Illustrated News, v, 6 April 1872, 213, illus. & descrip.)
VIENNA, ONT., St. Luke's Anglican Church, 1860-62 (Echo & Protestant Recorder [Montreal], 5 Feb. 1863, 2, descrip.; Canadian Churchman [Merrickville], 12 Feb. 1863, 2, descrip.; inf. Charles Addington, London)
EAST ZORRA, ONT., Anglican Church, 1861 (Canadian Ecclesiastical Gazette, 1 July 1861; Trinity Anglican Church, Zorra 1846-1967, 4-5)
NEW BOYNE, ONT., Anglican Church, begun c. 1861; opened 1879 (Church Guardian [Moncton], 24 July 1879, 5, descrip.)

(Commercial & Institutional works)

TORONTO, ONT., extensive alterations to building for Hugh Scobie and George B. Wyllie, Yonge Street, 1853 (Daily Colonist [Toronto], 5 April 1853, 3, t.c.)
KINGSTON, ONT., Commercial Bank, King Street at William Street, 1853-54 (Globe [Toronto], 30 June 1853, 311, t.c.; Daily British Whig [Kingston], 21 April 1855, 2, descrip.; Money Matters-A Critical Look at Bank Architecture, 1990, 58-9, 123-4, illus.; Jennifer McKendry, Architects Working in the Kingston Region 1820-1920, 2019, 57-58, illus.)
TORONTO, ONT., warehouse for John Dickson, Wellington Street West near Yonge Street, 1854 (Globe [Toronto], 16 Feb. 1854, 3, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., pair of stores for James Leask, Yonge Street near Adelaide Street West. 1854 (Globe [Toronto], 13 July 1854, 3, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., General Hospital, Gerrard Street East at Sumach Street, 1854-55; demol. (Globe [Toronto], 11 Aug. 1856, 2, descrip.; Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 2, illus. & descrip.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 232-34, illus. & descrip.; Eric Arthur, Toronto - No Mean City, 1964, 114, illus. & descrip.; C. Cameron & J. Wright, Second Empire Style in Canadian Architecture, 1980, 40-1, illus.; dwgs. at Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library; dwgs. at OA, David Roberts Coll.)
TORONTO, ONT., Old General Hospital, King Street West at John Street, alterations for a new Legislative Hall and Provincial Registry Office, 1855 (Globe [Toronto], 4 June 1855, 3, t.c.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 269)
TORONTO, ONT., Parliament Buildings, Front Street West at Simcoe Street, additions and alterations, 1855 (Leader [Toronto], 2 June 1855, 4, t.c.; Globe [Toronto], 11 Sept. 1855, 2, descrip.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 267-9,. descrip.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 21-3; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 32-3, illus.)
ORILLIA, ONT., a summer Hotel, 1855 (Globe [Toronto], 4 Sept. 1855, 3, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., Consumer's Gas Co., retort house and extensive additions, 1856-57; alterations to meter house, 1859 (Globe [Toronto], 11 Aug. 1856, 2; 8 April 1857, 1, t.c.; Pim Papers, Baldwin Room, 23 Aug. 1859)
TORONTO, ONT., three stores for Thomas Berkinshaw, Palace Street, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 11 Aug. 1856, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., conversion of King's College at Queen's Park into a temporary Lunatic Asylum, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 11 Aug. 1856, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., pair of wholesale stores for Angus Dallas, York Street, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 9 Jan. 1856, 3, t.c.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., Colonist Newspaper Office, King Street East near Church Street, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 18 April 1856, 3, t.c.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., House of Providence, Power Street near Queen Street East, 1855-56 (Globe [Toronto], 12 Sept. 1855, 2, descrip.; 17 May 1856, 2, t.c.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2, descrip.; G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 234-6, descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 120-1, illus.)
TORONTO, ONT., store for H. Piper & Bros., Yonge Street near King Street East, 1857 (Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, Baldwin Room, Pim Papers, 14 Feb. 1857)
TORONTO, ONT., new Chapter Room for the Masonic Hall, Toronto Street, c. 1858; demol. 1964 (G.P. Ure, A Handbook of Toronto, 1858, 245-8, descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 81, illus.)
HAMILTON, ONT., Commercial Bank, King Street West, later occupied by the Bank of Montreal, 1858-59; demol. (Globe [Toronto], 29 May 1858, 3, t.c.; 5 May 1860, 1, descrip.; C.A.B., vi, Jan. 1893, 3 & plate illus.)
TORONTO, ONT., Yorkville Town Hall, Yonge Street near Yorkville Avenue, 1859-60; burned 1941 (Globe [Toronto], 27 Oct. 1859, 3, t.c.; 1 Oct. 1860, 2, descrip.; A. Mackler, 'Coloured Brick in Yorkville', in Journal of Canadian Art History, iv, 1978, 98-110, illus.; Eric Arthur, Toronto - No Mean City, 1964, 142, illus. & descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 164-66, illus.; dwgs. at Baldwin Room, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, Langley Coll., 178-88)
LONDON, ONT., Commercial Bank, Richmond Street at Willam Street, completion of the design begun by Frederick Kortum, 1860 (Free Press [London], 21 March 1861, 3, illus. & descrip.; Globe [Toronto], 27 March 1861, 1, descrip.)
TORONTO, ONT., Prince of Wales Arch, Yonge Street, 1860 (Globe [Toronto], 8 Sept. 1860, 2, descrip.)
TORONTO, ONT., Allan Gardens, Carleton Street at Sherbourne Street, Pavilion Conservatory and Gardener's Lodge, 1860-61; demol. 1878 (Globe [Toronto], 31 July 1860, 2, descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1993, 152-3, illus.)

(Residential Works)

BRAMPTON, ONT., mansion for George Wright, Church Street West, 1853 (Globe [Toronto], 18 Aug. 1853, 395, t.c.)
TORONTO, ONT., houses on Carlton Street for Capt. Eccles and for A.N. Buell, 1854 (Globe [Toronto], 24 Aug. 1854, 3, t.c.)
BROCKVILLE, ONT., 'Thornton Cliff', for Reuben P. Colton, King Street East, 1854 (Brockville Recorder, 22 Jan. 1857, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., John Street near Richmond Street West, for John N. Robertson (Globe [Toronto], 12 Sept. 1855, 3, t.c.; 11 Aug. 1856, 2)
TORONTO, ONT., 'Oaklands', a mansion for John McDonald, Avenue Road near Alcorn Avenue, 1860 (Globe [Toronto], 25 Jan. 1860, 3, t.c.; Eric Arthur, Toronto - No Mean City, 1964, 144, illus. & descrip., but lacking attribution)
(with David Stirling) HALIFAX, N.S., 'Keith Hall' for Hon. Alex Keith, Hollis Street, 1863-64 (Evening Express [Halifax], 9 Nov. 1863, 2; E. Pacey, Historic Halifax, 1988, 44-5, illus.)

WILLIAM HAY

(works in Scotland and elsewhere)

DUNDEE, ANGUS, Butterburn United Presbyterian Church, at the foot of Hill Street, 1864-65; demol. 2007 (Dundee Courier & Argus, 25 Nov. 1864, 3, descrip.)
KINCARDINE O'NEIL, ABERDEENSHIRE, Christ Church [Episcopal], Pitmurchie Road, 1865-66 (J. Sharples, D. Walker & M. Woodworth, The Buildings of Scotland: Aberdeenshire - South and Aberdeen, 2015, 600, descrip.)
GALASHIELS, SCOTLAND, "Kingsknowes House", a large mansion for Adam Lees Cochrane, Selkirk Road, 1868-69 (Builder [London], xxvi, 21 March 1868, 209, descrip.; Charles A. Strang, Borders and Berwick: An Illustrated Architectural Guide, 1994, 202; Kitty Cruft et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Borders, 2006, 80, 313)
EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND, Brighton Place, a row of twelve houses in Portobello, 1869 (Builder [London], xxvii, 17 April 1869, 311)
PETERHEAD, ABERDEENSHIRE, The Music Hall, 1872; burned 1936 (David Walker & Matthew Woodworth, The Buildings of Scotland - Aberdeenshire: North & Moray, 2015, 57, 353)
EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND, St. Giles Anglican Cathedral, restoration of interior, 1872-83, with work after 1877 by Hay & Henderson; new west Doorway, 1882-84 (The Architect [London], xix, 2 Feb. 1878, 70, descrip.; xxxi, 5 April 1884, 223, descrip.; Building News [London], xlii, 12 May 1882, 570-1, descrip.; Builder [London], liv, 9 June 1888, 414; J. Gifford, Edinburgh: The Buildings of Scotland, 1984, 106-14, 116). An interview and commentary by Hay, in which he described, in his own words, the work which he was conducting on the Cathedral in 1881, appears in The Architect [London], xxv, 23 April 1881, 293-94, descrip.)
GALASHIELS, SCOTLAND, "Abbotshill", a large residence for Archibald Cochrane, Abbotsford Road, 1874 (Kitty Cruft et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Borders, 2006, 80, 313)
OVERTOWN, LANARKSHIRE, SCOTLAND, Overtown Parish Church, Main Street, 1874-75 (John Gifford et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Lanarkshire & Renfrewshire, 2016, 427, descrip.)
ST. GEORGE'S, BERMUDA, St. Peter's Anglican Church, begun 1874 but abandoned in 1899, and now called the 'Unfinished Cathedral' (Royal Gazette [Bermuda], 28 Jan. 1874; Bermuda Pocket Almanack Guide & Directory, 1884, 72, descrip.; dwgs. at the Bermuda Archives, PA 2259; Barry Magrill, 'William Hay's Gothic Solution for Church Building in Tropical Climates', in Journal of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, xxix, No. 1 & 2, June 2004, 15-26, illus.)
PETERHEAD, ABERDEENSHIRE, South Free Church, Chapel Street, 1875 (David Walker & Matthew Woodworth, Aberdeenshire: North & Moray, 2015, 342, descrip.)

HAY & HENDERSON

GALASHIELS, SCOTLAND, St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, 1878-81; spire 1886 (The Architect [London], xix, 11 May 1878, 290, descrip.; Building News [London], xli, 2 Dec. 1881, 738, descrip.)
DUNS, SCOTLAND, "Kirkwell House", Castle Street, the former rectory of Christ Church, 1880 (Kitty Cruft et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Borders, 2006, 238)
EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND, Old St. Paul's Anglican Church, Jeffrey Street at the foot of Carrubbersclose, 1881 (Builder [London], xl, 23 April 1881, 503)
PEEBLES, SCOTLAND, St. Peter's Episcopal Church, Eastgate, addition of a chancel and west porch, 1882-84 (Kitty Cruft et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Borders, 2006, 618)
PEEBLES, SCOTLAND, St. Andrew's Old Parish Church, restoration of the Norman medieval tower "...on the banks of the River Tweed", for Dr. William Chambers, 1883 (Dundee Courier & Argus, 28 Feb. 1883, 4, descrip., with credit to "Mr. W. Hay, architect, Edinburgh" [of Hay & Henderson]; Kitty Cruft et al, The Buildings of Scotland: Borders, 2006, 617, descrip., but credited only to Henderson, instead of Hay)
HADDINGTON, SCOTLAND, restoration of St. Mary's Anglican Church, 1883 (Globe [Toronto], 5 Oct. 1883, 6)
DISTINGTON, ENGLAND, Holy Spirit Anglican Church for the Carlisle Diocese, 1883-86 (Globe [Toronto], 5 Oct. 1883, 6; N. Pevsner, The Buildings of England: Cumberland & Westmoreland, 1967, 122)
HAMILTON, BERMUDA, Trinity Anglican Church, begun in 1884; completed in 1889 after the death of Hay in 1888 (Building News [London], lvi, 29 March 1889, 438, descrip., and full page plate illus. showing interior perspective)
ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, addition of a new reredos screen behind the altar, for the chancel of the St. John's Anglican Cathedral, Church Hill, 1885; church heavily damaged by fire July 1892, and later rebuilt and restored (Montreal Daily Star, 24 Nov. 1885, 7, descrip.)
PEMBROKE, BERMUDA, new Government House, the vice-regal residence for the Governor of Bermuda to replace 'Mount Langton', 1885 (Builder [London], liv, 9 June 1888, 414)
HAMILTON, BERMUDA, Jubilee Clock Tower adjoining Sessions House, 1887 (dwgs. at Bermuda Archives, Hamilton)

COMPETITIONS

ST. JAMES ANGLICAN CATHEDRAL, King Street East, 1849. The name of William Hay does not appear in the list of entrants in this competition published in The Globe [Toronto], 13 Oct. 1849, 2, because his plans were late in arriving from Newfoundland. A detailed architectural description of his design, presented 'in the Early English or Pointed Style', can be found in The Church [Cobourg], 24 Jan. 1850, 102.
QUEBEC CITY, QUE., Custom House, 1856. Hay was one of fourteen architects from Canada and United States who submitted entries in this important competition (NAC, RG 11, Vol. 90, File 3, 'Schedule of Competitors for the Proposed Quebec Custom House', 25 March 1856). The First Premium was awarded to another Toronto architect William Thomas.
HAMILTON, ONT., City Hall & Market, 1857. Hay submitted a design which was 'exceedingly handsome' and dominated by a large clock tower (Semi-Weekly Spectator [Hamilton], 15 April 1857, 2, descrip.). His entry, one of fourteen entries submitted from the United States and Canada, was not among the finalists and Frederick Kortum was declared winner.