Cumberland, Frederic William

CUMBERLAND, Frederic William (1820-1881)
(biography in preparation)

An extensive collection of architectural drawings prepared by Frederic W. Cumberland, and by the firms of Cumberland & Ridout and Cumberland & Storm between 1849 and 1863 can be found in the Horwood Collection at the Ontario Archives in Toronto. Many additional references to projects are cited in the Pim Papers, Baldwin Room, Metro Toronto Reference Library, MSS S117). An exhaustive study of the built works and unrealised projects by Cumberland has been compiled by Geoffrey Simmins and published in Fred Cumberland: Building the Victorian Dream, 1997, 248-91.

(works in Toronto unless noted)

F.W. CUMBERLAND

YONGE STREET, additions and alterations to residence for Hon. Justice Robert B. Sullivan, 1848-9 (Horwood Coll. 53; G. Simmins, 185, illus.)
HOME DISTRICT REGISTRY OFFICE, Toronto Street, 1849; demol. (Horwood Coll. 60; 68)
COLLINGWOOD, ONT., Railway Terminal Shed and Station for the Ontario, Simcoe and Huron Railroad Union Co., Huron Street East, 1854-55; demol. 1873 (inf. from Stephen Otto)
QUEEN'S WHARF, an Engine House for the Ontario, Simcoe & Huron Railroad Union Co., 1855 (Pim Papers, 9 Jan. 1855)

CUMBERLAND & RIDOUT

HAMILTON, ONT., Church of the Ascension [Anglican], John Street South at Forest Avenue, 1850-51; tower completed 1878; damaged by fire Jan. 1887; rebuilt by Darling & Curry (The Church [Cobourg], xiii, 16 May 1850, 166; Sutherland's City of Hamilton Directory, 1867-68, 22-3, illus. & descrip.; M. Farmer, Church of the Ascension Hamilton-A Short History, 1950, 6-7, illus.; Horwood Coll. 73; G. Simmins, 118-27, illus.)
ST. JAMES' ANGLICAN CATHEDRAL, King Street East at Church Street, 1850-53 (British Colonist [Toronto], 21 June 1850, 3, t.c.; The Church [Cobourg], xiv, 21 Nov. 1850, 132, descrip.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 11-13, descrip.; O. Thompson, Toronto in the Camera, 1868, 6, illus.; J.R. Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, i, 1894, 509-10, illus. & descrip; iii, 1898, 367-71, descrip.; dwgs. at St. James' Cathedral Archives, Toronto; Horwood Coll. 55; 78; 750; G. Simmins, 124-39, illus.)
CANADA COMPANY, Bay Street, office building, c. 1850 (Horwood Coll. 69)
ST. CATHARINES, ONT. residence on Shickluna Street, perhaps for Mr. Shickluna, c. 1850 (Horwood Coll. 80)
LUNATIC ASYLUM, Queen Street West, Gate Lodge, stables and farm buildings, and brick enclosure walls surrounding the property, 1850-51; mostly demol. 1976 (Globe [Toronto], 28 June 1851, 305, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 72)
CAYUGA, ONT., Haldimand County Court House, 1850-51; burned 1922 (Globe [Toronto], 9 April 1850, 171, t.c.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Cornerstones of Order, 1983, 156-9, illus.; Horwood Coll. 74; G. Simmins, 152-3, 158, illus.)
BANK OF UPPER CANADA, Adelaide Street East, addition on George Street, 1851 (W. Dendy & W. Kilbourn, Toronto Observed, 1986, 25-7, illus.)
ST. JAMES' PAROCHIAL SCHOOL, Church Street at Adelaide Street East, behind St. James' Anglican Cathedral, 1851; demol. 1909 (The Church [Cobourg], xv, 3 June 1852, 337, descrip.; Horwood Coll. 71; 749; 751; G. Simmins, 84, 88-9, illus.)
JARVIS STREET, at Shuter Street, residence for Walter MacFarlane, 1851-52 (Horwood Coll., Specifications, No. 9)
NORMAL SCHOOL, Gould Street, 1851-52; demol. 1963 except for facade inside quadrangle at Ryerson Polytechnical Institute (Journal of Education for Upper Canada, v, Dec. 1852, 177-8, illus. & descrip.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 73-7, descrip.; J.G. Hodgins, The School House: Its Architecture, Arrangements & Discipline, 1858, 5-10, illus. & descrip.; Horwood Coll. 79; G. Simmins, 78-88, illus.)
SEVENTH POST OFFICE, Toronto Street, 1851-53 (Examiner [Toronto], 23 April 1851, 3; Globe [Toronto], Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 4, illus.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 16-17, descrip.; O. Thompson, Toronto in the Camera, 1868, 1-2, illus.; W. Dendy & W. Kilbourn, Toronto Observed, 1986, 62-3, illus.; Horwood Coll. 76; G. Simmins, 149-51, illus.)
HAMILTON, ONT., Central School, Hunter Street West at Park Street, 1851-53, and completed by Cumberland & Storm; altered 1890 (Weekly Spectator [Hamilton], 27 March 1851, 3, descrip.; J.G. Hodgins, Schools & Colleges in Ontario 1792-1910, i, 87, 90, illus.; Horwood Coll. 70; G. Simmins, 85-7, 90-1, illus.)
YORK COUNTY COURT HOUSE, Adelaide Street East, west of Church Street, 1851-53 (Globe [Toronto], Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 2, illus.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 37-8, descrip.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Cornerstones of Order, 1983, 159-61, illus.; W. Dendy & W. Kilbourn, Toronto Observed, 1986, 60-1, illus.; Horwood Coll. 77; 83; G. Simmins, 154-7, 159-61, illus.)
WILLIAM STREET, residence for John H. Hagarty, 1852; demol. (Horwood Coll. 81; G. Simmins, 187, illus.)

CUMBERLAND & STORM

Institutional & Ecclesiastical Works

WHITBY, ONT., Ontario County Court House & Gaol, Centre Street, 1853-54 (Globe [Toronto], 26 Aug. 1852, 411, t.c.; Leader [Toronto], 12 July 1853, 2; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Cornerstones of Order, 1983, 162-4, illus.; Horwood Coll. 82; 88; G. Simmins, 162-4, illus.)
PROVINCIAL MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, Kings College Road, University of Toronto, 1853-55; Director's Residence, 1858; Observatory moved to Hart House Circle in 1908; Residence demol. 1901 (Leader [Toronto], 20 Aug. 1853, 3, t.c.; Globe [Toronto], Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 3; Horwood Coll. 84; 120; G. Simmins, 213-18, illus.)
LITTLE TRINITY ANGLICAN CHURCH, King Street East, Parsonage House and new vestry for the church, 1853 (United Empire [Toronto], 15 Jan. 1854, 2; Horwood Coll. 84; G. Simmins, 188, illus.)
ORPHAN'S HOME, Sullivan Street, 1853; additions 1860; demol. (Semi-Weekly Leader [Toronto], 5 July 1853, 3, t.c.; Evening Colonist [Toronto], 16 May 1860, 1, t.c.)
MECHANICS INSTITUTE, Church Street at Adelaide Street East, 1854-55; demol. 1949 (A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 31-3, descrip.; O. Thompson, Toronto in the Camera, 1868, 7, illus.; Canadian Illustrated News, ii, 18 June 1870, 519, 524, illus. & descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 108-11, illus.; Horwood Coll. 93; G. Simmins, 169-72, 179-83, illus.)
HAMILTON, ONT., Post Office, James Street North near Rebecca Street, 1854-56; altered 1897 by William & Walter Stewart (Hamilton Gazette, 3 July 1854, 3; Globe [Toronto], 4 March 1856, 2, descrip.; Canada, Sessional Papers, No. 8, 1867, 264, descrip.; Horwood Coll. 91; G. Simmins, 153-5, illus.)
OLD GOVERNMENT HOUSE, King Street West at Simcoe Street, glass conservatory, 1854; stables, coach houses, outbuildings, 1855; demol. (Pim Papers; Leader [Toronto], 15 June 1855, 4, t.c.; Globe [Toronto], 19 Oct. 1855, 2, descrip.; Horwood Coll. 97)
UPPER CANADA COLLEGE, King Street West at Simcoe Street, additions and alterations, 1854; additions to Resident School House, 1856; new Porter's Lodge, Bursar's Office, gates, fences and outbuildings, 1857 (Globe [Toronto], 10 Jan. 1855, 2; Leader [Toronto], 4 Oct. 1856, 4, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 109)
MILTON, ONT., Registry Office and additions to the Halton County Court House, 1856 (Globe [Toronto], 15 May 1856, 3, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 108)
QUEEN STREET WESLEYAN CHAPEL, Queen Street West near Spadina Avenue, 1856; demol. c. 1980 (A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 51, descrip.; T. Champion, Methodist Churches in Toronto, 1899, 138-40, illus. & descrip.; Horwood Coll. 101; D.S. Richardson, A Not Unsightly Building - University College and Its History, 1990, 62, illus.; G. Simmins, 138-41, illus.)
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, University of Toronto, 1856-59 (Globe [Toronto], Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 3, descrip.; 30 June 1857, 2, descrip.; A. Sylvester, Sketches of Toronto, 1858, 44-7, descrip; Journal of Education for Upper Canada, xi, Nov. 1858, 161-66, descrip.; Illustrated London News [London], xxxv, 5 Nov. 1859, 452, 454, illus. & descrip.; D.S. Richardson, A Not Unsightly Building - University College and Its History, 1990, 49-113, illus.; Horwood Coll. 103-05; 107; 114-15; 119; 125; 747; dwgs. at Univ. of Toronto Archives; G. Simmins, 92-116, illus.)
OSGOODE HALL LAW COURTS, Queen Street West at University Avenue, major additions and reconstruction of the Centre Block, 1856-59 (Leader [Toronto], 25 May 1859, 2, descrip.; Globe [Toronto], 28 July 1859, 2, descrip.; 7 Feb. 1860, 2, descrip.; Canadian Illustrated News, ii, 23 April 1870, 393-4, illus. & descrip.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Cornerstones of Order, 1983, 153-55, illus.; W. Dendy & W. Kilbourn, Toronto Observed, 1986, 71-7, illus.; Horwood Coll. 102; 117, 129-31; 649, 742; 747; G. Simmins, 160-8, 173-4, 177-8, illus.)
MODEL GRAMMAR SCHOOL, Gerrard Street at Church Street, adjacent to the Normal School 1857-58; demol. c. 1950 (Globe [Toronto], 29 June 1855, 3, t.c.; Pim Papers, 14 April 1857; Horwood Coll. 100; G. Simmins, 88, 91, illus.)
MASONIC ARCH, Toronto Street at King Street, erected for the visit of the Prince of Wales, 1860 (Globe [Toronto], 8 Sept. 1860, 2, descrip.)
PRINCE OF WALES ARCH, John Street at the lakefront, 1860 (Globe [Toronto], 8 Sept. 1860, 2; 14 Sept. 1860, 2, article on dismantling; Horwood Coll. 641)
ST. JAMES' CEMETERY CHAPEL, Parliament Street, 1859-61 (Globe [Toronto], 28 July 1859, 2; Leader [Toronto], 22 Dec. 1860, 3, t.c.; Globe [Toronto], 26 Feb. 1862, 1, descrip.; J.R. Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto, 1904, iv, 33-6, illus; W. Dendy & W. Kilbourn, Toronto Observed, 1986, 81-3, illus.; Horwood Coll. 132; G. Simmins, 141-8, illus.)
LINDSAY, ONT., Victoria County Court House & Gaol, Francis Street, 1862-63 (Globe [Toronto], 12 Feb. 1862, 3, t.c.; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Cornerstones of Order, 1983, 187-9, illus.; Horwood Coll. 127; 133; G. Simmins, 165-6, illus.)
ST. CATHARINES, ONT., Lincoln County Gaol, 1863-64 (Globe [Toronto], 8 Dec. 1863, 3, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 134)

Commercial & Industrial Works

RICHMOND HILL, ONT., store for W. Teefy, Yonge Street, c. 1852 (Horwood Coll. 79)
FRONT STREET EAST, at Church Street, hotel and store for Thomas Brunskill, 1852 (Horwood Coll., Specifications No. 3)
WELLINGTON STREET, at Yonge Street, wholesale store for James Duggan, 1853; demol. (Horwood Coll. 87)
WESLEYAN BOOK STORE, Printing Office, King Street East, 1853 (Pim Papers, Sept. 1853)
LIVERPOOL, ONT., a hotel 'on the Kingston Road', near Liverpool Road, Whitby, 1853 (Leader [Toronto], 3 Aug. 1853, 3, t.c.)
YONGE STREET, at Adelaide Street, three stores for John Sterling, 1854; demol. 1988 (Horwood Coll. 85)
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ASSURANCE CO., Church Street, additions and alterations to offices, 1854 (Globe [Toronto], 20 April 1854, 3; Pim Papers, May 1854; March 1856)
JORDAN STREET, at Melinda Street, commercial block for J. Lukin Robinson, 1855 (Horwood Coll. 94; 95; G. Simmins, 189, illus.)
WINDSOR, ONT., Bank of Upper Canada, Pitt Street at Goyeau Street, 1855; demol. (Horwood Coll. 99; G. Simmins, 209, illus.)
PORT HOPE, ONT., Bank of Upper Canada, John Street at Augusta Street, 1855-58 (Globe [Toronto], 30 Oct. 1855, 3, t.c.; Pim Papers, 22 Dec. 1857)
SARNIA, ONT., Bank of Upper Canada and Residence, 1857 (London Free Press, 15 July 1857, 3, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 112; G. Simmins, 210-11, illus.)
LINDSAY, ONT., Bank of Upper Canada, 1857-58 (Horwood Coll., Specifications No. 16, 21, 22)
EDINBURGH LIFE ASSURANCE BUILDING, Wellington Street West, 1858; converted to the American Club, 1912 by Jules F. Wegman; demol. 1929 (Building News [London], iv, 20 Aug. 1858, 846, descrip.; W. Dendy, Lost Toronto, 1978, 66-7, illus.; Horwood Coll. 90; G. Simmins, 220-3, illus.)

Residential Works

PEMBROKE STREET, at Dundas Street East, for George W. Allan, 1854 (Horwood Coll. 90)
FRONT STREET WEST, near Spadina Avenue, extensive additions and alterations to 'Lyndhurst', for Frederick Widder, 1854; 1857; demol. 1961 (Pim Papers, Aug. 1854; July 22, 1857; Horwood 116; G. Simmins, 197-9, illus.)
(attributed) BATHURST STREET, north of Queen Street West, 'The Hall', a mansion for Sir Casimir S. Gzowski, c. 1854-55; demol. 1904 (unsigned dwgs. in Horwood Coll. 638; G. Simmins, 190-3, illus.)
BARRIE, ONT., for George Moberly, c. 1855 (Horwood Coll. 139)
FRONT STREET WEST, at Windsor Street, three row houses for J. Lukin Robinson, 1855; demol. (Horwood Coll. 94)
YONGE STREET, near Yorkville Avenue, additions and alterations to 'Chestnut Park', a residence for Sir David L. McPherson, 1855 (Horwood Coll. 92; G. Simmins, 206-08, illus.)
PETER STREET, for William H. Blake, 1855-56; demol. (Horwood Coll. 100; G. Simmins, 196, illus.)
DAVENPORT ROAD, near Bathurst Street, for Hon. John Ross, 1855; demol. (Leader [Toronto], 5 June 1855, 4, t.c.; Horwood Coll. 96) MURRAY STREET, for Hon. W.B. Robinson, 1856 (Horwood Coll. 106)
SHERBOURNE STREET, north of Wellesley Street East, 'Sherbourne Villa', a mansion for Thomas G. Ridout, 1856-57; demol. 1964 (Building News [London], iv, 20 Aug. 1858, 846; M. MacRae & A. Adamson, Ancestral Roof, 1963, 154-5, illus.; Horwood Coll. 633; G. Simmins, 201-5, illus.)
ST. GEORGE STREET, near College Street, 'Pendarves', a residence for F.W. Cumberland, Architect, 1857-60 (Pim Papers, 24 Aug. 1857; Globe [Toronto], 28 July 1859, 2, descrip.; Horwood Coll. 59; G. Simmins, 200, illus.)
ISABELLA STREET, at Huntley Street, for Dalrymple Crawford, 1860 (Horwood Coll. 126)

Competitions and Unbuilt Projects

ST. CATHARINES, ONT., Town Hall, 1848. Cumberland submitted two variants on a Palladian theme for this public building (Horwood Coll. 67; G. Simmins, 13, illus.). Both of his designs and that prepared by William Thomas were passed over in favour of the winning scheme developed by Kivas Tully.
HAMILTON, ONT., new Gaol for the Gore District Courthouse, King Street East at John Street, 1848 (Horwood Coll. 52)
TRINITY COLLEGE, Queen Street West, 1851. Both Cumberland & Ridout and Kivas Tully participated in an invited competition for this new college complex promoted by Bishop John Strachan. Two untitled perspective drawings now held at the Ontario Archives (Horwood Coll. 748) may be those of the design prepared by Cumberland for this project. The design by Tully was eventually chosen by the Bishop.
IRISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, Queen Street East at Mutual Street, 1852. Plans were submitted by Cumberland & Storm in competition with William Thomas, Joseph Sheard and others. The First Premium was awarded to Thomas (Journal of the Canadian Institute, i, Sept. 1852, 46)
THE ESPLANADE & RAILWAY QUAY, Toronto Waterfront, a master plan for the Front Street Esplanade and new railway tracks along the lakefront, c. 1853 (Horwood Coll. 68)
PARLIAMENT BUILDING, University of Toronto Grounds, 1853-55. This competition entry submitted by Cumberland & Ridout was accompanied by an elaborate plan for a Government House, signed 'Kitchee Hogeeman Endaut', and was intended to serve as a residence for the Governor-General of Canada. Neither structure was built (Horwood Coll. 54, 139; Canada, Sessional Papers, 1862, No. 3, Appendix, descrip. in letter from Frederick P. Rubidge, Government Architect; G. Simmins, 228-30, illus.)
CANADIAN INSTITUTE, Pembroke Street, 1855-56; The cornerstone was laid on 14 Nov. 1855, but the building was never completed (Globe [Toronto], 14 Nov. 1855, 2; Pictorial Supplement, 13 Dec. 1856, 3; Horwood Coll. 110)
OTTAWA, ONT., Parliament Building and Departmental Buildings, 1859. Under the pseydonym 'Odahwah', Cumberland & Storm were one of sixteen competing firms who submitted designs for this project which is documented in drawings for a massive Norman style complex (Horwood Coll. 121; 124; Carolyn Young, The Glory of Ottawa: Canada's First Parliament Buildings, 1995, 50-7, illus.; G. Simmins, 225-36, illus.). Their plans were set aside in favour of those submitted by Fuller & Jones and by Stent & Laver.
OTTAWA, ONT., Governor General's Residence, 1859. As part of the competition noted above, Cumberland & Storm prepared one of ten designs for Government House, and their drawings were awarded First Premium (Horwood Coll., 122; 123; Globe [Toronto], 10 May 1862, 2; Carolyn Young, The Glory of Ottawa: Canada's First Parliament Buildings, 1995, 62-5, illus.; G. Simmins, 237-41, illus.). The project was publicly tendered (Leader [Toronto], 9 Jan. 1860, 3, t.c.) but construction was deferred by the Dept. of Public Works and the scheme was never realized.
SIMCOE, ONT., Norfolk County Court House, 1863. This may have been the last project in which both Cumberland & Storm participated before their partnership was dissolved. Their proposal, one of twelve submitted, was passed over and the scheme designed by John Turner was selected (Brant Expositor [Brantford], 5 June 1863, 3)